10 Things You Need to Know Before You Start Your MBA

What are some tips for someone who is about to attend business school? originally appeared on Quorathe place to gain and share knowledge, empowering people to learn from others and better understand the world.

Answer by Bernie Klinder, Serial Entrepreneur, Investor, Consultant, on Quora:

What are some tips for someone who is about to attend business school?

I’m assuming by “business school” you mean an MBA program, although I think my advice will likely apply to undergraduate school as well.

Here are my top 10 tips for getting the most out of your MBA program.

  1. Make sure you get your money’s worth. MBA’s are expensive. Mine was about $1,000 per class day. Overall, my cohort spent over $1 million on the program. Keep that in mind everyday when you sit down in class: Imagine forking over $1,000 in cash (or whatever your tuition breakdown is) when you arrive each day. Make sure you see the value in that class. If not, demand it.
  2. Don’t let your professors be lazy. If your professor is essentially just reading the book to the class and flipping through the PowerPoint deck provided by the book publisher YOU ARE WASTING YOUR TIME AND MONEY. Push your professors to provide real world examples and relate their own experience (if they have any – some have no business experience). The classroom should be a dialog, not a canned speech.
  3. Do the reading and prep work. If the class lecture is your first exposure to a topic, you’re already failing. As much as I advocate for holding the faculty accountable, you have to own the other side of the equation. Professors often teach to the middle of the bell curve, so its up to you and your cohort to move that curve to the right. Having an overview of the material in advance will help you ask better questions and get more out of your class time. It allows more dialog, and less time reviewing the reading. Make sure to read any linked articles in your syllabus, and do some additional digging instead of just stopping at the required list.
  4. Take collaborative notes with your classmates: Taking notes will help you retain information, but comparing notes with your classmates will help uncover things you missed. Using programs like Evernote, OneNote, or Google Docs will allow you to share and edit documents in real time annotated with images, sketches, or even video. Its easy to do a quick image search and add supply and demand curves, charts, finance equations, and other examples into your notes instead of trying to sketch them out.
  5. Get to know your classmates. Each of your classmates will have specific strengths: some may have work experience in accounting, manufacturing, supply chain, etc. Leverage their knowledge in each class, and define who subject matter experts are. This will help when you’re stuck in statistics, economics, accounting, or finance. You are also supposed to learn from your classmates, this is why the quality of the cohort is so essential to the quality of the program. If you are the smartest person in the cohort, you went to the wrong school!
  6. Assume each of your classmates could be your future boss. Communities and networks are small. The best way to leverage your MBA is to grow your professional network. If you’re on a group project, do more than everyone else. Be more prepared. Be the team hero – but be humble. After graduation, you will likely run into your classmates again. You may need them for a job referral. Years down the line, one of them might be your boss – or your bosses boss. Make sure they remember you well.
  7. Be proactive. Sit in the front row, be engaged, ask questions. Don’t be afraid of asking the wrong question, everybody does sooner or later. If there is a guest speaker, really leverage their knowledge. Don’t wait until the lecture is over to ask a question in a side bar. Most of your professors will be professional academics with limited real world business experience. If are fortunate enough to have a former C-level executive as a professor or lecturer, get them to talk about actual challenges they’ve had.
  8. Leverage audio books. Many of the non textbook business classics are available as audiobooks that you can listen to while driving to work, doing chores, or working out. Many also have book summaries online. You can also leverage secondary material in your semester breaks. I took advantage of the Teaching Companies lectures on Economics, 3rd Edition to prep for the Macro and Micro Econ courses and sailed through the classes.
  9. Dig into the case studies. The real world application of knowledge is what an MBA is all about. The case studies are as close as you’re going to get. Learn as much as you can from them, do the prep work and do not get caught flat footed on the Q&A! Try to understand and not judge the different perspectives from your fellow students. Remember that the program is designed so you learn from each other. In case studies (as in the real business world) there may not be a clear right answer. Sometimes you have to choose between two bad options, and not everyone will agree on the best way forward. Learn to make your case using data and without getting defensive.
  10. Don’t be afraid to hold the school and program accountable, and switch schools if necessary. I left the first MBA program I enrolled in because of some of the issues cited above. I lost a semesters worth of work and tuition, and took other members of the cohort with me, but the bigger mistake would have been staying and throwing good money after bad. Surprisingly, the other MBA programs we had applied to were happy to add us to their existing cohorts without a fuss. Don’t assume you are stuck if you enrolled in a bad program – start exploring options immediately.

Hope this was helpful.

This question originally appeared on Quora – the place to gain and share knowledge, empowering people to learn from others and better understand the world. You can follow Quora on Twitter, Facebook, and Google+. More questions:

Published on: Jun 27, 2018

Apple CEO Tim Cook Pulls Ahead of Rivals In News Curation Battle

This article first appeared in Data Sheet, Fortune’s daily newsletter on the top tech news. To get it delivered daily to your in-box, sign up here.

Tim Cook blasphemed Monday night in San Francisco, at least from the perspective of his Silicon Valley brethren.

“We felt that the top stories should be selected by humans,” Cook said, discussing a new, curated section of Apple News devoted to the U.S. midterm elections in November. His reasoning: “To make sure that you’re not picking content simply to enrage people.”

The last thing Silicon Valley’s news aggregators want is human selection, you see. Google (googl) and Facebook (fb) thrive by algorithm. Popularity counts most, even if the beauty contest is gamed by state-sponsored trolls and other criminals. And more is always better than better because there’s money to be made here.

Again, Cook took issue with his neighboring Goliaths. “I’m not being critical of people who do something different,” Cook allowed, a sure sign he was about to be critical of two companies that profit mightily from re-purposing the news that others write while collecting data from readers, “but Apple has always stood for curation. We’ve always believed in quality, not quantity.”

Cook’s comments were self-serving—Apple (aapl) sells gadgets and services that run on them, not ads or data sets—but that didn’t make them any less refreshing. Quality may not always be a better business model, but it’s infinitely more satisfying. Never perfect, Apple nevertheless has the high ground on this issue. Cook said Apple News will employ its own writers to supplement what it gets from other sources. He also said the company will turn to topics other than the midterm elections.

Cook was the opening speaker at the annual meeting of Fortune’s CEO Initiative, a community dedicated to exploring how business can improve the world through its profit-making activities. The Apple CEO, about to hit the seven-year-mark in the job, has been outspoken on issues like immigration, equality, privacy, human rights, and the environment. He carefully draws the distinction between commenting on policy (good) and politics (bad).

A beta tester or Apple’s announced-but-unreleased “Screen Time” feature to help users monitor their over-reliance on smartphones, Cook said he’s cut down on his use of notifications and also has begun picking up his phone less.

Because more isn’t always better. And quality tends to win out in the end.

Uber wins London license but with conditions

LONDON (Reuters) – Uber [UBER.UL] avoided a ban in London on Tuesday after the taxi-hailing app’s new management made changes to ease strained relations with the city’s transport regulator, but its new license will include strict conditions.

A photo illustration shows the Uber app and a bus in London, Britain, June 25, 2018. REUTERS/Henry Nicholls/Illustration

Uber overhauled its policies and personnel in Britain after Transport for London (TfL) refused to renew its license in September for failings in its approach to reporting serious criminal offences and background checks on drivers.

Judge Emma Arbuthnot said that while Uber had not been fit and proper when that decision was made, an overhaul of its policies in the subsequent months had changed its position.

“(Uber) has provided evidence that it is now a fit and proper person… I grant a license to ULL (Uber London Limited),” she said in her judgment.

The judge granted Uber a 15-month “probationary” license to operate.

With backers including Goldman Sachs (GS.N) and BlackRock (BLK.N) and valued at more than $70 billion, Uber has faced protests, bans and restrictions around the world as it challenges traditional taxi operators, angering some unions.

Uber, which has about 45,000 drivers in London, introduced several new initiatives in response to the ruling, including 24/7 telephone support and the proactive reporting of serious incidents to police. It has also changed senior management in Britain, its biggest European market.

The ruling has been a test of Uber’s new management at board level, with chief executive Dara Khosrowshahi, who took charge the month before TfL’s decision, pledging to “make things right” in London.

London Mayor Sadiq Khan was clear that the court ruling was no carte blanche for Uber in London.

“No matter how big or powerful you are, you must play by the rules – especially when it comes to the safety of Londoners,” he said in a tweet.

“Uber has been granted a 15-month license to operate in London – but with a clear set of conditions that TfL will closely monitor and enforce.”

The license conditions include giving TFL notice of what Uber is doing in areas that may be a cause of concern, reporting safety related complaints and having an independent assurance audit report every six months.

Reporting by Alistair Smout; Additional reporting by Costas Pitas; Editing by Alexander Smith, Mark Potter, Alexandra Hudson and Jane Merriman

Wrangling Data in Service to Digital Marketing

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Companies have been leveraging digital channels such as banner ads, email, and software tools like CRM to reach customers for years. But SAP’s Chief Digital Marketing Officer is a newly created, one year-old position – highlighting the critical role that digital has recently assumed within the world of marketing.

Mika Yamamoto is the first and only person to have held this title at SAP, and the first CDMO that I have ever met. She took over the role from her prior position as Chief Marketing Officer of SAP SMB, again showing the primacy of digital within forward thinking organizations. Her charge is to optimize and align all of a company’s investments in digital assets and channels to drive greater profitability.

Yamamoto’s career arc has informed her approach to this task. From her very first job after college, she learned that data is critical to identifying, testing and measuring success. But that data alone is useless without the understanding of human nature and tendencies. So today, she seeks to underpin her digital-first strategy at SAP with offline insights into the relationships customers hold with companies.

Yamamoto did not arrive to her role via a traditional technology path.  She attended college to pursue degrees in economics and psychology. Her first job out of school was as a consultant, focusing on change management in the banking industry.

Coming during the era of bank mergers, her job was to find a way to make the two entities better together. She quickly learned that effectively combining sometimes disparate cultures was critical to these mergers, and that understanding motivations and relationships helped best align them in service to customers and shareholders.

Next, Yamamoto joined the analyst group Gartner, focusing on research into how small and medium businesses invested in technology. Large vendors like Microsoft, Cisco and SAP used her insights to optimize products and solutions to meet those unique business needs. Much of her recommendations at Gartner revolved around the use of data to make better decisions and realize improved outcomes.

Eventually, Yamamoto joined the Windows product management team at Microsoft. There, she helped Microsoft manage the consumer shift from desktops to laptops, and sparked the company’s journey into retail. In fact, Yamamoto was employee number five at Microsoft stores.

How The Internet Of Things Impacts Supply Chain

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Traditionally, companies have relied on third-party logistics contractors to ensure that goods get from one place to another. This was a reasonable solution, but certainly open to human error, considering that all shipping, tracking, receipt, etc. have been accomplished manually.

Today, however, we have “smart” technology with the capacity to perform complex tasks at a higher speed and with higher precision. The combination of cloud computing, analytics and hardware advancements have created a new avenue for conducting delivery and fulfillment operations, powered by the Internet of Things (IoT).

Just what is IoT?

The Internet of Things is a new technology paradigm that allows objects to “talk” with other objects and with humans, through embedded electronic nodes that are programmed for specific functions. It makes these things “smart.” Thus, a “smart” thermostat can communicate with its owner and other “smart” devices in the house and vice versa. A “smart” car can alert its owner to traffic issues on the way to work.

So, how does this new technology relate to supply chain management? In many ways. And in so doing, it can eliminate the third-party logistics contractor and speak directly to a supplier, shipper or receiver, according to Sean Liu, CEO of Versara Trade, a trade finance platform built on blockchain to facilitate crypto credit enhancement on trade finance transactions and improve on traditional factoring and asset-based lending (ABL) by using cryptocurrency as extra collateral.

Tracking locations

There are different aspects of tracking the locations of raw materials, inventory, and finished products.

1. Tracking transit and delivery from a raw materials supplier to a manufacturing facility. Many manufacturers rely on a number of suppliers to deliver ordered materials on time. When these suppliers can use RFID (radio frequency identification) tags on materials, everyone knows the route, the times, and the actual delivery to the manufacturer. This provides full transparency at both ends of the chain.

2. Tracking the locations of materials once delivered. Again, if the manufacturing facility is large and shipments are arriving all of the time, it can be a nightmare when a specific shipment is somehow “lost” in the yard. Those embedded RFID tags solve this issue.

3. Tracking materials and products within a facility. Materials do get misplaced. This can result in production problems, delays and unhappy customers. With RFID tags, nothing is misplaced.

Environmental sensing

Many products are perishable and/or environmentally sensitive. Certain temperatures, humidity, and other conditions must be maintained for risk control. IoT applications for these circumstances are ideal, because, just like a smart refrigerator in a home, there will be alerts when conditions go awry.

“IoT allows for monitoring conditions during shipment – not just temperatures and humidity, but vibrations and shocks,” said Liu. “Thus, both transporters and receivers of goods can be notified in advance of delivery, and a replacement shipment can be dispatched in short order. When blockchain is added to the mix, it increases transparency, security and confidence.”

Managing fleets

CB radios and then cell phones have been the traditional means of communicating with transport vehicles, as goods are moved from one point to another. And there are all of those pesky regulations regarding driver operations and rest, not to mention weight compliance issues.

“With IoT and blockchain, which facilitates the recording of every transaction across multiple copies of the distributed ledger, a manufacturer or contracted transporter knows where each of his vehicles is at any given point during the transit process, can monitor that it is on schedule, and can be immediately alerted if there is a breakdown or some other issues,” Liu explained.

Emergency services

Cisco recently teamed up with the California Shock Trauma Air Rescue service – an air ambulance operation – in the use of IoT for its dispatching functions. The biggest benefit is that when a call comes in, the location is “geo-matched” to the closest crew and that crew is automatically dispatched to the scene. And the entire operation is monitored throughout the process.

5 Tips For Writing a Book People Will Actually Read (From a First Time Author)

I was sitting alone in a garage surrounded by packing boxes.

My usual morning routine, which started with coffee back then (and now is more about black tea), segued into a new idea for this column. I started writing about what it means to be driven, to push yourself so hard that you have no other choice but to find a solution. Like someone absolutely committed to obtaining a college degree or finding their way through downtown traffic, you just push and push and push.

And yet, the neurons were not firing that day. I was in a garage because we had sold our house, and a friend had offered a place to live for a few weeks. On a cabin by a lake–sounds idyllic, right? And yet, the cabin didn’t have an office or a place to work. In fact, it barely had a working air conditioner.

That garage, sitting on the end of a dirt road, became a haven for me, but it wasn’t easy to keep writing. My chair creaked. The oil stains smelled. I’d sometimes hear the scraping of some wild animal late at night, giving me the creeps. Pushing was not exactly an option. It was more like a mind game; I was trying to stay productive.

I wasn’t. In the midst of acquiring bank loans and arranging for a U-Haul, I kept driving and pushing myself. Since 2001, I’ve worked as a columnist in magazines and online (including about seven years writing this column). This time, I was pushing against a brick wall, so I decided to retreat back into the cabin and fetch more coffee.

On my way back, I thought pretty hard about why I’m so driven. What was this internal motivator pushing me forward? Was it money? Or the appeal of success? Or a desire to prove my father wrong after I left a corporate job? I stopped in my tracks. I didn’t see a light shining down from the sky–other than the sun–but I did have an epiphany. I realized right then and there that I needed to stop trying so hard, living under my own power. I went back to the cabin and wrote a column about how “being driven” is not the answer.

And then I had an idea for a book. It’s on a spiritual topic, but the basic concept is that we can’t do it all on our own. We need help. We can stay driven and keep pushing, but at the end of the day, there’s only so much we can do to find success. In a business context, it means letting other people mentor us, letting our team develop and grow outside of our control. In marriage or in raising kids, it means allowing friends and extended family to become part of our inner circle, to help us move forward.

We push so hard, and yet–for most entrepreneurs–the constant pushing often leads to more stress, anxiety, and even depression. I wrote my first book as an attempt to come to terms with this for myself, but along the way, I learned a lot about what actually works and how to write an extended piece of non-fiction that people will read and understand.

Here are my best tips if you follow a similar path.

1. Write with empathy

My book is about my own spiritual journey in life. I had to think long and hard about my topics, and I restarted several chapters when it seemed like they were mainly a feeble attempt to set myself up as an expert. That process–setting ourselves up–usually ends in failure. You’re either an expert or you’re not. My topic, living a spiritual life, is one where few of us are experts. So I wrote mostly about my own experiences, a memoir of sorts, and I decided to write in a way that treated the reader as a fellow non-expert. We’re all in this together, I thought, and we might as well admit none of us have all of the answers. This helped me see the reader as a partner, not a pupil.

2. Stick to your instincts

A piece of me is in the book. A big piece. I avoided flowery language, or overly complex segues. On a long plane ride to Austria in the fall of 2016, I wrote two full chapters of the book; on the return trip, I wrote two more. I poured out the stories in a flash of inspiration, and I didn’t worry too much about whether any of the material would win a literary award (it won’t). However, I wanted to directly and succinctly communicate a simple idea, and I wanted to use everyday language. If you write a book, this is perhaps my biggest tip of all: Keep it simple. Keep it straightforward. Trust your instincts.

3. Persevere through the process

Most authors will tell you that writing a book is laborious. It takes an incredible investment in time; it can take months or even years. For my book, I wrote the basic chapters in a draft form in about two months, writing almost everyday. That does not include revisions and editing. Yet, the hardest part was not the drafting or the editing or even the revisions. The hardest part was writing a book that reflected exactly what I wanted it to say, and within the publication window. This is more than editing and revision; this is soul searching. It’s a monumental struggle to translate from the idea to the written word in a way that makes sense and communicates the idea clearly, and in a way that makes you feel proud.

4. Give your ideas time to germinate

That struggle to write is no match for the struggle to find insight in the first place. It’s more than staying on a rigid sleep schedule and drinking extra coffee. You can’t quickly find insight. Your ideas have to germinate and grow, and they originate with experiences and the hard lessons you’ve learned. I’ve persevered through many struggles over the past 30 years, and my book is mostly a document of those struggles. Now, I worry about the next book, which is already in an infant stage, because I’ve already drawn from the well so many times. If you can’t quickly find insight, you also can’t quickly have experiences. You need to give them time to develop (in fact, I might take another full year).

5. Know when to put the pen down

I know, there’s no pen involved. We’re all on keyboards. For me, it was hard to finally stop hammering on my laptop and to realize when the stories were documented enough for my own purposes and for the purposes of my publisher. I finished the book last year, and every month I’d think about making revisions. Yet, I resisted the temptation because it became a record of my thoughts and ideas during that timeframe. Changing it too much would pull the book into my current timeframe. You have to accept the risk that what you have documented during that season is what is the most accurate and best version. And you have to accept when a book is done and ready to debut. For me, it’s time.

Three Consequences Of The Transition Taking Place In The Electric Sector

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Our increasingly digital world has raised expectations for speed:

Speed of communication = smartphone (iPhone, Android).

Speed of travel = car sharing (Uber, Lyft).

Speed of information = internet search (Google…well, just Google).

Speed of financial transactions = real-time payment (Venmo, Stripe).

There appear to be few barriers to accelerating the speed of anything to its utmost physical potential using the miracle of 21st-century information technology. For the flow of digital information, if it is not in real time, it might as well arrive by horse and buggy.

This phenomenon took the telecommunications industry by storm during the early part of my career, and the world has never been the same. Real-time, secure communications worldwide is a reality that has fueled the burgeoning digital economy.

A transformation not unlike what I witnessed then is now taking place in the electric power grid. Lest we forget, without the ever-present availability of electricity, the world as we know it does not run. This makes it all the more egregious that it is running on obsolete, 20th-century technology.

An Electric Sector In Transition

The holy convergence of economic competitiveness and consumer demand is driving the exponential growth of renewable energy, with energy storage soon to follow. In 2016, new capacity added to the grid from renewables exceeded that from traditional coal and gas sources for the first time. What is taking place is much more fundamental than just technological substitution. The entire character of the electric grid is changing, from centralized, large-scale generation to a proliferation of smaller-scale, distributed energy resources that are cheaper, more efficient and much faster to deploy. In concert, the energy regulatory environment is shifting to accommodate the addition of new distributed generation while simultaneously injecting competitive market forces. Similar to the breakup of Ma Bell, dismantling arguably the largest remaining monopoly in the country is stimulating more innovation — and creating challenges — in a “network” business known as the electric power grid.  

Consequences Of This Transition

1. The Dilemma Of Big Data

While these technological and regulatory advances are transforming the business models of utilities and their energy retailer cousins, a challenge looms — big data. Yes, big data equals big problems in an industry that is still running billions of dollars of transactions using Excel spreadsheets.

This energy transition has created exponential growth in data and complexity, which, if left unresolved, will stymy the growth of renewables and distributed resources and keep the electric grid stuck in the 20th century.  

Again, the reason comes back to data — a truck-sized firehose of complex power data that is impossible to make sense of using current information and transactional systems. To put this in perspective, there are more than 12 million backup generators in the U.S. This number dwarfs the number coal-fired generation stations (over 700) operating in the U.S. Just in backup power capable of serving as a distributed asset behind the meter, this represents an exponential increase in data and complexity for the grid.

EU Parliament committee votes for tougher EU copyright rules to rein in tech giants

BRUSSELS (Reuters) – Google (GOOGL.O), Facebook (FB.O), Microsoft (MSFT.O) and other tech giants could face more curbs on their market power after a European Parliament committee voted in favor of tougher copyright rules on Wednesday.

The logo of Google is pictured during the Viva Tech start-up and technology summit in Paris, France, May 25, 2018. REUTERS/Charles Platiau

The copyright rules, proposed by the European Commission two years ago, are designed to take account of the growing role of online platforms, forcing them to share revenues with publishers and bear liability for copyright infringement on the internet.

The vote by the Legal Affairs Committee is likely to be the Parliament’s official stance as it heads into negotiations with EU countries on a common position, unless dissenting lawmakers force a vote at the general assembly next month.

While internet luminaries and activists and some lawmakers have criticized the EU reforms, copyright holders have applauded them.

German lawmaker Julia Reda, part of the Greens group in the parliament, opposed the EU proposal and said the measures would break the internet.

“People will run into trouble doing everyday things like discussing the news and expressing themselves online. Locking down our freedom to participate to serve the special interests of large media companies is unacceptable,” she said in a statement.

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“I will challenge this outcome and request a vote in the European Parliament next month,” she said.

Criticism has focused on two articles of the proposed new law. Article 11 or the so-called neighboring right for press publishers could force Google, Microsoft and others to pay publishers for showing news snippets.

Article 13 or mandatory upload filtering would require online platforms such as YouTube, GitHub, Instagram and eBay (EBAY.O) to install filters to prevent users from uploading copyrighted materials or seek licenses to display content.

Lobbying group CCIA, whose members include Google, Facebook, eBay, Amazon (AMZN.O) and Netflix (NFLX.O), criticized lawmakers for ignoring pleas from Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales, World Wide Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee, net neutrality expert Tim Wu, internet pioneer Vint Cerf and others.

“We urge all MEPs (members of parliament) to contest this report and to support balanced copyright rules, which respect online rights and support Europe’s digital economy,” CCIA’s Maud Sacquet said.

Raegan MacDonald, head of EU public policy at Mozilla, creator of the Firefox web browser, called it a sad day for the internet in Europe.

“It is especially disappointing that just a few weeks after the entry into force of the GDPR – a law that made Europe a global regulatory standard bearer – parliamentarians have approved a law that will fundamentally damage the internet in Europe, with global ramifications,” she said, referring to Europe’s new data protection law.

Civil Liberties Union for Europe also criticized the committee’s vote.

“MEPs listened to lobbyists and ignored our fundamental rights. We will take this to the plenary and keep fighting for freedom of speech in the EU,” the union’s Eva Simon said.

Publishers cheered the committee’s vote, calling it a victory for fairness and a recognition that rights holders should be rewarded.

“The internet is only as useful as the content that populates it. This publishers’ neighboring right will be key to encouraging further investment in professional, diverse, fact-checked content for the enrichment and enjoyment of everyone, everywhere,” Europe’s news and magazine publishers said.

Reporting by Foo Yun Chee; editing by Philip Blenkinsop and Adrian Croft

New Discovery Reveals How Your Brain Changes When You Need Sleep

, Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own.

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</div> </div> <p>In desperate need of a good night’s sleep? If so, you aren’t alone.</p> <p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5353813/" target="_blank" data-ga-track="ExternalLink:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5353813/" rel="nofollow">Between 10% to 30% of adults experience insomnia</a>, and for <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5987897/" target="_blank" data-ga-track="ExternalLink:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5987897/" rel="nofollow">up to 1 in 10 adults, insomnia can become a chronic disorder</a>. Even people who manage to sleep like proverbial logs can end up sleep deprived if <a href="https://theconversation.com/explainer-how-much-sleep-do-we-need-29759" target="_blank" data-ga-track="ExternalLink:https://theconversation.com/explainer-how-much-sleep-do-we-need-29759" rel="nofollow">sleep is restricted</a> by staying up too late or waking too early.</p> <p>Whatever the cause, sleep deprivation can lead to mild to significant cognitive impairment while we’re awake. We’ve all felt the effects at one point or another. It might just be a case of pouring coffee on your cereal or alighting the wrong train while jet-lagged, but fatigue also causes more serious problems like work and motor vehicle accidents.</p> <p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5859531/#CR8" target="_blank" data-ga-track="ExternalLink:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5859531/#CR8" rel="nofollow">A recent study showed</a> that drivers who regularly get less than 6 hours of sleep a night have a 33% higher risk of a car accident than drivers who get 7 to 8 hours of sleep a night. This was the case even when the drivers didn’t report excessive sleepiness. Studies also show that accruing sleep debt over long periods of time can have a negative impact on mental health.</p> <p> </p> <p>So what is actually changing in the brain the longer we go without sleep? And why does a good sleep make us feel so refreshed?</p> <p>Interestingly, although sleep accounts for around one-third of our lives and plays a substantial role in our health and well-being, we still don’t know all that much about the biochemistry of sleep.</p> <p>From an evolutionary perspective, there must be a really good reason for going offline for hours at a time — snoozing instead of hunting, foraging, or mating — and being quite vulnerable while we do so.</p>

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In desperate need of a good night’s sleep? If so, you aren’t alone.

Between 10% to 30% of adults experience insomnia, and for up to 1 in 10 adults, insomnia can become a chronic disorder. Even people who manage to sleep like proverbial logs can end up sleep deprived if sleep is restricted by staying up too late or waking too early.

Whatever the cause, sleep deprivation can lead to mild to significant cognitive impairment while we’re awake. We’ve all felt the effects at one point or another. It might just be a case of pouring coffee on your cereal or alighting the wrong train while jet-lagged, but fatigue also causes more serious problems like work and motor vehicle accidents.

A recent study showed that drivers who regularly get less than 6 hours of sleep a night have a 33% higher risk of a car accident than drivers who get 7 to 8 hours of sleep a night. This was the case even when the drivers didn’t report excessive sleepiness. Studies also show that accruing sleep debt over long periods of time can have a negative impact on mental health.

So what is actually changing in the brain the longer we go without sleep? And why does a good sleep make us feel so refreshed?

Interestingly, although sleep accounts for around one-third of our lives and plays a substantial role in our health and well-being, we still don’t know all that much about the biochemistry of sleep.

From an evolutionary perspective, there must be a really good reason for going offline for hours at a time — snoozing instead of hunting, foraging, or mating — and being quite vulnerable while we do so.

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The Best Blockchain Jobs And Careers Available Today

, Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own.
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</div> </div> <p><strong>What is blockchain technology?</strong></p> <p>Although <span><a href="https://www.bernardmarr.com/default.asp?contentID=1389" target="_blank" data-ga-track="ExternalLink:https://www.bernardmarr.com/default.asp?contentID=1389" rel="nofollow">blockchain</a></span> technology was first developed to use with the cryptocurrency bitcoin in 2008, it is essentially a distributed database that can store any type of record. Users can only edit the parts of the blockchain they own, making it highly secure, but anyone with access to the blockchain can see it, so it is also highly transparent. Some have described blockchain as the “internet of value”—anyone can send value anywhere the blockchain file can be accessed just like anyone can publish information that others can access on the internet no matter where they are in the world. Now that blockchain technology has expanded beyond the financial sector, many companies representing many industries are researching and exploring how adopting blockchain could help their business.</p> <p><strong>Where is the demand for blockchain skills?</strong></p> <p>Blockchain has become what the “cloud” was in the mid-2000s, poised to be the most highly talked about technology and one that offers tremendous professional opportunity. According to Upwork’s skills index, blockchain is the fastest-growing skill out of more than 5,000 on the site. Currently, demand is far outpacing supply. According to<u><a href="https://www.computerworld.com/article/3235972/it-careers/blockchain-moves-into-top-spot-for-hottest-job-skills.html" target="_blank" data-ga-track="ExternalLink:https://www.computerworld.com/article/3235972/it-careers/blockchain-moves-into-top-spot-for-hottest-job-skills.html" rel="nofollow"> Burning Glass Technologies</a></u>, there were more than 5,743 largely full-time job openings posted that required blockchain skills in the last 12 months. Even though as a skill-set, blockchain technology is in its infancy, it’s in demand from start-ups as well as established companies such as IBM and Samsung. Organizations are exploring not only cryptopcurrencies powered by blockchain but how the distributed ledgers that are the backbone of <span><a href="https://www.bernardmarr.com/default.asp?contentID=1302" target="_blank" data-ga-track="ExternalLink:https://www.bernardmarr.com/default.asp?contentID=1302" rel="nofollow">blockchain can be applied in other areas</a></span> such as supply chains, legal, contracts and more.</p> <p> </p> <p>Blockchain research and adoption requires the leadership and skills of professionals who can build the strategy and develop the blockchain solutions. Here are a few of the hottest positions:</p> <p><strong>Blockchain developer</strong></p> <p>Since there is virtually no industry leader who isn’t somewhat intrigued by the potential opportunities made possible through blockchain technology, blockchain developers who have the expertise to help companies develop blockchain platforms are in high demand. Blockchain development might offer the most robust career path at the moment, because until solutions are developed, all the benefits of blockchain can’t be realized. Some organizations call this role a blockchain engineer. This is a highly technical position that requires tremendous attention to detail.</p>

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Blockchain expertise captured the No. 1 position on the latest skills index by Upwork for being the hottest in the U.S. job market. This is just one of the many indicators of how high the demand is for people with blockchain skills. Blockchain may have begun in finance to support cryptocurrencies, but now blockchain technology and the solutions it can provide are being explored by industries from healthcare to insurance to manufacturing and more. The only way companies can explore and achieve goals with blockchain is to hire those who have the skill-set to navigate this new technology. Here we’ll spotlight what blockchain technology is, who wants those with blockchain skills and some of the best blockchain jobs and careers that are available today.

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What is blockchain technology?

Although blockchain technology was first developed to use with the cryptocurrency bitcoin in 2008, it is essentially a distributed database that can store any type of record. Users can only edit the parts of the blockchain they own, making it highly secure, but anyone with access to the blockchain can see it, so it is also highly transparent. Some have described blockchain as the “internet of value”—anyone can send value anywhere the blockchain file can be accessed just like anyone can publish information that others can access on the internet no matter where they are in the world. Now that blockchain technology has expanded beyond the financial sector, many companies representing many industries are researching and exploring how adopting blockchain could help their business.

Where is the demand for blockchain skills?

Blockchain has become what the “cloud” was in the mid-2000s, poised to be the most highly talked about technology and one that offers tremendous professional opportunity. According to Upwork’s skills index, blockchain is the fastest-growing skill out of more than 5,000 on the site. Currently, demand is far outpacing supply. According to Burning Glass Technologies, there were more than 5,743 largely full-time job openings posted that required blockchain skills in the last 12 months. Even though as a skill-set, blockchain technology is in its infancy, it’s in demand from start-ups as well as established companies such as IBM and Samsung. Organizations are exploring not only cryptopcurrencies powered by blockchain but how the distributed ledgers that are the backbone of blockchain can be applied in other areas such as supply chains, legal, contracts and more.

Blockchain research and adoption requires the leadership and skills of professionals who can build the strategy and develop the blockchain solutions. Here are a few of the hottest positions:

Blockchain developer

Since there is virtually no industry leader who isn’t somewhat intrigued by the potential opportunities made possible through blockchain technology, blockchain developers who have the expertise to help companies develop blockchain platforms are in high demand. Blockchain development might offer the most robust career path at the moment, because until solutions are developed, all the benefits of blockchain can’t be realized. Some organizations call this role a blockchain engineer. This is a highly technical position that requires tremendous attention to detail.

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